Difference Between Job Costing and Process Costing with Comparison Chart

the target cost for a job using job costing is calculated as

October 10 Indirect materials totaling $1,000 were placed in production. Make the journal entry to close the manufacturing overhead account assuming the balance is material. Make the journal entry to close the manufacturing overhead account assuming the balance is immaterial.

  • This cost approach is more customer-centric as the company creates the products from the customers’ expectations.
  • This provides you with valuable information you can use later in your calculations to create more accurate estimations.
  • Target price are determined by adding profit to the cost.
  • The record of costs assigned to a specific job in customarily referred to as job cost record (Covaleski, 2001, p. 25).
  • Cost accounting is the accounting branch concerned with recording, classifying, summarizing, and allocating costs incurred during a period.

Specific market share can be captured by catering to the needs of the customers identified in such cases, since the target price shall be higher, higher target cost does not matter. However, by and large, the basic product meant for a chunk of consumers will have to be sold at a lower price, thereby target costing assumes greater significance for the general market segments. Target costing system requires mapping of different customer segments, and the cost and revenue analysis provides information to identify the most attractive segment in terms of margin.


Job order costing is the procedure of allocating costs to tailor-made products or services. Direct materials and work expenses are allocated to specific jobs, as well as the manufacturing overheads. Job allotment depends on the overhead costs, allotment base, and the allotment rate. The industrywide move to mass production brought new challenges in managing costs.

the target cost for a job using job costing is calculated as

The costs that are utilized to project the price are also utilized to evaluate cost in the company. The company independently accounts for directs costs, whereas the rival incorporates these costs in overhead. For example, the company’s system incurs extra costs in accumulating and allocating outlying benefits, photocopying, and phone charges to a specific job. When these factors come into the picture, management wants to control the costs, as they have little or no control over the selling price.

Fixed costs- Cost Accounting

Target costing adds value to the production process by eliminating non-value added activities, thus paving the way for decreased costs passed on to the consumer. Target costing enables companies to ascertain a more realistic price as well as strengthen competition among firms to offer quality products at lower costs. During the year, Trombley Incorporated has the following inventory transactions. Using FIFO, calculate ending inventory, cost of goods sold, sales revenue, and gross profit. Using LIFO, calculate ending inventory, cost of goods sold, sales revenue, and gross profit. Using weighted-average cost, calculate ending inventory, cost of goods sold, sales revenue, and gross profit.

  • Ii) If the estimated actual cost exceeds the target cost, investigate the ways of reducing the actual cost to the level of the target cost.
  • In job costing, WIP may or may or may not be present at the end of the financial year.
  • Here process refers to a separate stage where production is performed to convert the raw material into an another identifiable form.
  • In other words, when it comes to revenue, accountants should err on caution and delay recognition in the financial statements.

Raw materials totaling $40,000 are purchased on account. The timesheet is often called a time card, time ticket, or job ticket. The worker is responsible for completing the timesheet, including the date, job number, and hours worked on each job. For example, https://online-accounting.net/ let’s say that a company has a product that it wants to sell for $100. The company has determined that it needs to make a profit of $20 on the product in order to be profitable. A partial list of the accounts used by Cycle Tech Bicycles is given.


With the passage of time, the company’s operations improve drastically, creating economies of scale. Establishing the target amount by which current costs must be reduced. It is very difficult to reach to a consensus on the proper design of the product, because the opinion of the design team members may vary.

Instead, overhead applied represents a portion of estimated overhead costs that is assigned to a particular job. Certain kinds of products are more likely to use target costing than others. For example, products such as smartphones and automobiles are often designed with a target price in mind. This is because these products have a lot of competition and companies need to be able to offer a competitive price in order to sell their products. In addition, these products often have a lot of features and benefits that need to be taken into account when setting a price. The target costs include variable cost, fixed cost, and manufacturing overhead costs. The desirable profit is the expected return from the shareholder.

Target Costing – Meaning, Process, Benefits and More

Describe the characteristics of companies likely to use a job costing system. Explain how these characteristics differ from companies likely to use a process costing system. Use a job costing system to track costs and evaluate profitability for each job. Although this approach is not as common as simply closing the manufacturing overhead account balance to cost of goods sold, companies do this when the amount is relatively significant.

the target cost for a job using job costing is calculated as

After the relevant costs have been identified and classified as either direct or indirect, they must be summarized and allocated to the products, processes, projects, or cost activities. Generally, it may take months or a year to design a product. It does not mean that the management terminates the project after the final design.

Determine your target profit margin

Marginal costing is one such tool that can be used in short-term economic decisions. As the name suggests, marginal costing looks at the impact on the cost of a product by adding one additional unit into production. This type of analysis can be used by management to gain insight into potentially profitable new products, sales prices to establish for existing products, and the impact of marketing campaigns.

The overhead costs applied to jobs using a predetermined overhead rate are recorded as credits in the manufacturing overhead account. You saw an example of this earlier when $180 in overhead was applied to job 50 for Custom Furniture Company. If a company’s production process is highly mechanized (i.e., it relies on machinery more than on labor), overhead costs are likely the target cost for a job using job costing is calculated as driven by machine hours. The more machine hours used, the higher the overhead costs incurred. Thus machine hours would be used as the allocation base. Job costing systems record revenues and costs for unique products; ones that can be easily distinguished from other products. Process costing systems record revenues and costs for batches of identical units of product.